Psychology 101 Lesson 1作业

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2020年12月29日17:48:48 评论 193 32012字阅读106分42秒

What is psychology?

  • Psychology is mind reading.
  • Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behavior.
  • Psychology is a discipline on treating mental illnesses.
  • Psychology is not a science.

Micro expression lasts about 1 second.

  • true
  • false

Which one of the following techniques allows us to measure the amount of blood flowing into brain regions?

  • fMRI
  • EEG
  • TMS
  • Biopac

Dr. Qian conducted a survey to learn the demographics of her class, like gender, age, country of origin and so on. This is to achieve which of the following goals of psychology?

  • describe
  • predict
  • understand
  • explain

Psychologists seeking to establish a relationship between family income and years of formal education would use which research method?

  • the clinical method
  • naturalistic observation
  • formal experiments
  • correlational methods

Which of the following is an advantage of using formal experimental methods?

  • Only these methods can find out whether there is any relationship between two variables.
  • Only these methods allow behavior to be observed as it naturally occurs.
  • Only these methods allow researchers to determine people's opinions about various issues.
  • Only these methods allow scientists to determine cause-and-effect relationships.

A psychologist studied the effect of blood alcohol levle on driving behavior. In this study the driving behavior was the _________ variable.

  • control
  • independent
  • dependent
  • manipulated

(multiple choices) Behavior can occur in different forms, which of the following are considered as behavior in psychology?

  • choices and responses
  • micro expression
  • physical movement
  • inner thoughts

Which branch focuses on the psychological characteristics throughout lifespan from birth, childhood to adulthood?

  • abnormal psychology
  • cognitive psychology
  • developmental psychology
  • social psychology

Which of the following is wrong about cognitive psychology?

  • Cognitive psychology is a branch that focuses on internal state, such as motivation, problem solving, decision making, thinking and attention.
  • Artificial intelligence is an area based on computer science but not psychology.
  • Cognitive psychology emerged in the1960s.
  • Cognitive psychologists started to use metaphor of computer to our mind after personal computers appeared.

Counselors, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists often work directly in ____.

  • abnormal psychology
  • behavioral neuroscience
  • cognitive psychology
  • comparative psychology

In order to fully understand people, it is necessary to understand the beliefs and values of their culture, according to

  • functionalism
  • structuralism
  • the sociocultural perspective
  • the neuroscience perspective

Which perspective is concerned with the study of perception, memory and attention?

  • Psychoanalysis
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Social-cultural psychology
  • Comparative psychology

(multiple choices) There are six perspectives in psychology. They are biological, behavioral, developmental, _______, humanistic and __________.

  • cognitive
  • comparative
  • organizational
  • social cultural

(multiple choices) Which of the following claims are WRONG about social psychology?

  • Cross-cultural comparaison is one of the topics of social psychology.
  • Empirical studys of social psychology have great influence on education and policy making.
  • Social psychology seeks to explain and understand development throughout lifespan, from birth, childhood to adulthood.
  • Social psychology started to appear in the 1960s.

About the evolution of human brain, which option is true?

  • The brain size of early hominins was bigger than that of chimpanzee.
  • Nowadays, Homo sapiens have a brain volume that is close to 850 cm³.
  • The association area of human brain is three times the size of other related species.
  • The most significant progress in human development is the use of tools.

Which of the following is NOT a major function of the frontal lobe?

  • moral decisions
  • executive functions
  • visual perception
  • self-control

Which of the following claim about the marshmallow experiment is FALSE?

  • Self-control is an important ability for success
  • Self-control is a function of the frontal lobe
  • Self-control in childhood can predict future performance
  • Self-control cannot be improved via practice

(multiple choices) Which of the following statements about the frontal lobe are correct?

  • The frontal lobe is responsible for social behavior.
  • The function of frontal lobe mainly develops during the early years of four to six.
  • The frontal lobe is the same as the association area.
  • The frontal lobe evolved much later in the human species.

(multiple choices) What can we learn from the marshmallow experiment?

  • Behavior observation is one of the techniques used in psychological research
  • The development of frontal lobe is important for the future of a person.
  • The marshmallow experiment aims to explore whether a child can resist temptation.
  • The result of this experiment cannot forecast whether a child can succeed in the future.

The purpose of the original marshmallow experiment was to understand ____.

  • the function of frontal lobe that's been developed during the critical years in our early life.
  • when the ability to wait to obtain something that one wants develops in children.
  • the better life outcomes of the kids who deferred gratification in the test.
  • how to improve parenting skill in coaching their kids to learn the skill of delaying gratification.

(multiple choices)Which of the following descriptions of the history of psychology are correct?

  • Psychology has a long history, but modern scientific psychology is rather recent.
  • Psychology originates in the middle ages.
  • Ancient Egyptians are not interested in the human brain.
  • Ancient philosophers' views of psychology are uniform.

Who was the first person to suggest that the brain was the root of behavioral problems ?

  • Aristotle
  • Hippocrates
  • Socrates
  • Philippe Panel

Which of the following is false ?

  • British philosopher John Locke suggested that knowledge is not inborn but is learned from experience.
  • "Know Thyself" was the motto by Socrates.
  • In China, Liu Xie carried out an early experiment to study perception.
  • In the middle ages, people believed that abnormal behavior was caused by the procession of demons.

Psychologist Ebbinghaus once said, “psychology has a long past but only a short history”. This is because…

  • Scholars only started studying human psychology recently
  • Scholars have been studying human psychology for a long time, but only recently do they study in a scientific way
  • Scholars started studying human psychology a long time ago
  • Scholars have been studying human psychology for a long time, but only recorded its history recently

When did psychology start to become a branch of the natural sciences?

  • At five hundred AD
  • During the Renaissance
  • During the Enlightenment
  • During the industrial revolution

(multiple choices) Which followings about the first psychological laboratory are true ?

  • The first psychological laboratory was established in Leipzig in Germany.
  • The first psychological laboratory was established in 1879.
  • The psychologist Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological laboratory.
  • The laboratory was used to studied the simplest mental processes.

Which of the following description about William James is false?

  • He was the first American born psychologist.
  • His book Principles of Psychology is still widely used today.
  • William James contributed to the establishment of functionalism.
  • William James contributed to the establishment of structuralism.

Please choose the incorrect sentences below.

  • Gestalt psychology focuses on the wholeness of an image rather than all of its parts.
  • Psychoanalysis was established by William James.
  • Psychoanalysis usually takes a look into the unconscious mind and a look into a mind about early childhood.
  • Behaviorism suggested that only the objective scientific analysis of observable behavior can be used to understand the human mind.

About psychology, which option is true?

  • Psychology is a social science.
  • Psychology is a natural science.
  • Psychology is both a social science and a natural science.
  • All of the options above are wrong.

Dr. Qian want to teach her little kid to use toilet, so every time her child uses the toilet properly, she praises her, and she scolds her whenever her child forgets to use the toilet. Dr. Qian is using a technique from…

  • Behaviorism
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Functionalism
  • Cognitive psychology

Mr. Zhang believes that he is a shy and neurotic person because his mother was harsh and demanding to him when he was a kid. He is probably reading books written by…

  • William James
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Herbert Simon

Which of the following claims about the modern psychology is FALSE?

  • It usually dates from the time that psychological laboratories emerged from Europe and the United States.
  • The very first psychological laboratory is established at Harvard.
  • Structuralism tends to find what are the elements of psychological processes, while functionalism focuses on how our mental process adapts to the environment.
  • Wundt is considered the father of modern psychology.

Who pointed out that individuals use heuristics to make decisions rather than a strict rigid rule of optimization?

  • Skinner
  • John Watson
  • Herbert Simon
  • Max Wertheimer

Which of the following is not usually considered as study subjects in psychological researches?

  • healthy adults
  • animals
  • patients with brain lesion
  • patients with heart disease

What does the story of Phineas Gage suggest?

  • One's personality can be greatly affected by the state of one's brain.
  • The state of the brain has little impact on one's personality.
  • The mind has amazing powers of healing physical wounds so that scars are not even noticeable.
  • Frontal Lobe is responsible for speech production.

(multiple choices)From the historical case of Phineas Gage, we can learn that _______ .

  • If somebody encounters a serious head injury, he (she) will certainly be dead.
  • If somebody encounters a head injury, maybe his (her) personality will change dramatically.
  • There is no connection between frontal lobe and personality.
  • Gage's case inspired psychologists to explore regional structure of our brain.

(multiple choices)Which of the following statements on fMRI are correct?

  • fMRI is used to observe the activity of brain when a person is at a task.
  • fMRI can be used to record brain waves.
  • fMRI is only used for inspecting brain structure.
  • fMRI is mainly be used to pick up the amount of blood flow into different brain regions.

About the structure of our brain, which option is false ?

  • The brain weights about 3 pounds , and it takes 1/45 of our body weight.
  • The cerebral cortex is enfolded by the limbic system.
  • The hippocampus is shaped like a seahorse.
  • The brain stem includes medulla and pons.

Which part of brain is associated with severe emotion, such as fear and aggression:

  • Hippocampus
  • Cerebellum
  • Hypothalamus
  • Amygdala

Although Sarah can learn and remember how to play a maze  game, she is unable to learn and remember the names of people to whom she has been introduced. Sarah most likely suffered damage in her ( )

  • hypothalamus
  • brainstem
  • hippocampus
  • cerebellum

(multiple choices)Which of the following claims about the function of our brain is correct?

  • Hippocampus is the main region responsible for our memory system.
  • Amygdala enables our memory system.
  • Our cerebellum is related to controlling voluntary movement.
  • Pons controls our heartbeat and breathing.

(multiple choices)Please choose the right options about hypothalamus.

  • It is a part of the thalamus.
  • One function of hypothalamus is controlling endocrine system.
  • It is part of cerebral cortex.
  • It can send orders to adjust body temperature.

Which region is responsible for analyzing visual information, and which region for processing vocal information?

  • the occipital lobe, the temporal lobe
  • the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe
  • the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe
  • the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe

Which of the follwoing parts of our body occupy the largest parts in the corresponding motor cortex in the brain?

  • Arm
  • Face
  • Body
  • Knee

(multiple choices)About the cerebral cortex, which of the following statements are correct?

  • Cerebral cortex consists of the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe and the temporal lobe.
  • Cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere, and they are connected by corpus callosum.
  • The motor cortex regions responsible for each of our body parts is proportional to the size of our body parts.
  • From the case of Phineas Gage, we know that frontal lobe is related to personality and self-control.

(multiple choices)Which of the following statements on FFA are correct?

  • FFA has equal level of activity when seeing a face or an apple.
  • FFA is an area in the visual cortex.
  • Compared to seeing an apple, FFA is more active when seeing a face.
  • FFA stands for fusiform face area.

(multiple choices)Which of the following claims on the Wernicke’s area are correct?

  • If the Wernicke’s area is injured, the person is still able to make a sound.
  • Wernicke’s area is responsible for speech production.
  • Both Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area are important for verbal communication.
  • If you are reading a book, your Wernicke’s area is active.

Which of the following claims on two hemispheres of our brain is correct?

  • The left hemisphere is responsible for analyzing information from left part of body.
  • The right hemisphere is responsible for analyzing information from both sides of body.
  • There are thick fibers connecting the two hemispheres.
  • Language function is situated equally on both sides of our brain.

Although Sally can learn and remember how to play a maze game, she is unable to learn and remember the names of people to whom she has been introduced. Sarah is most likely to have suffered damage to her: ( )

  • hypothalamus
  • brainstem
  • hippocampus
  • cerebellum

Which of the following descriptions of our brain is correct?

  • Our brain is only shaped by our genes
  • The ability of human brain to recover from an injury or a surgery is the same for different people
  • Brain can train itself in terms of attributing more function to a certain area
  • Age doesn’t affect the rehabilitation of patients with brain injury

(multiple choices)Which of the following descriptions of our brain are correct?

  • Our brain will not change any more after we are born.
  • The brain is shaped both by genes and by life experience.
  • Age will not affect the rehabilitation of patients with brain injury.
  • If an action is repeated for a extended period of time as part of rigorous training, the volume of the brain area associated with the action will change.

(multiple choices)In a series of classic experiments in the 1960s, Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga studied split brain patients and found which of the following?

  • Language is mainly processed in one side of our brain
  • The two hemispheres are in charge of different functions
  • Each hemisphere has all the mental functions and can work independently
  • This study confirmed the corpus callosum is not essential.

Which neurons are responsible for transforming sensory information from sense organs into neural information?

  • motor neurons
  • sensory neurons
  • interneurons
  • all of the above

About transmitting information between two neurons, which option is false ?

  • The nerve cells are connected with each other directly for rapid information transmission.
  • The structure responsible for cross-neuron information transmission is called synapse.
  • Neurotransmitters are chemical contents transmitting information between two neurons.
  • Neurotransmitters can activate receptors on nearby neurons.

In a neuron, the main function of the dendrites (树突) is to ( )

  • release neurotransmitters (神经递质) to signal subsequent neurons
  • preserve the speed and integrity (完整性) of the neural signal as it propagates (传导) down the axon (轴突)
  • perform the metabolic (代谢) reactions necessary to nourish (滋养) and maintain the nerve cell
  • receive input from other neurons

(multiple choices)Please choose the compositions of a neuron.

  • axon
  • soma
  • synapse
  • dendrite

(multiple choices)Which of the following statements about our nervous system are correct?

  • Our nervous system includes the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
  • The central nervous system only contains our brain.
  • The somatic nervous system is part of the peripheral system.
  • The autonomic nervous system can be divided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic system.

Which of the following are part of our eye?

  • retina
  • occipital lobe
  • fovea
  • cone

Which of the following descriptions of our retina are false?

  • The light comes through the pupil and the lens, and then is projected on the back of the retina.
  • The object outside will be projected erected on the retina.
  • There is an area named fovea which can form the clearest image.
  • The cones are the only cells to process visual information.

Please choose the right options about the painting Mona Lisa.

  • Neuro scientists have found the Da Vinci code for Mona Lisa’s smile.
  • Mona Lisa's smile is evasive because cones and rods perceive it differently.
  • Mona Lisa's smile is so mysterious that we can’t know the reason.
  • If you want to see the Mona Lisa's smile, you can’t focus on the details and color.

What had happened in the painter Jonathan I's life?

  • He can only see the color red.
  • He had sickness in his eyes.
  • He can see things miles away.
  • Jonathan I suffered from cerebral achromatopsia.

About vision and color, which option are true?

  • The most common kind of colorblindness is the inability to distinguish green from red.
  • We can see the infrared, visible light, and ultraviolet.
  • All visual neurons can deal with all color.
  • Color is important for our daily life.

What can we learn from the introduction about color?

  • There are differences between objective sensation and subjective color perception.
  • Color constancy means color perception system can insure the color perceived from objects remain relatively constant.
  • The equipment viewing cabinet can show different illumination.
  • We don’t have any good method to do color proof.

When we see a color, what is the processing step?

  • sensation→perception→reaction→cognition
  • perception→cognition→reaction
  • sensation→perception→cognition→reaction
  • perception→sensation→cognition→reaction

Why do different people perceive the dress in section 3.2 as having different colors?

  • Because some people have perception disorder.
  • Because extra phenomenon information is added in the judgment.
  • Because the color of this dress is changing all the time.
  • Because different people have different sense of colors.

About perception constancy, which option is wrong?

  • Perception constancy means that our perception is always consistent with the physical world
  • Color constancy means people can insure the color perceive from objects remain relatively constant even under different illumination conditions.
  • When we see a shape from different angles, shape constancy lets us know that the shape is unchanged even though the retina image changes.
  • The "changing size effect" experiment shows the importance of surrounding environment in perception.

Which of the following claims on "the Thatcher illusion" are correct?

  • It was first discovered in 1980s by British psychologists.
  • This illusion occurred because we look at eyes and mouth first.
  • This illusion suggests that face proportion is important for people to process facial information.
  • This illusion suggests that eyes and mouth can convey the most relevant social information.

Which option is correct about face recognition?

  • Upright face is easier to recognize than upside-down face.
  • Recognizing upright face is just as easy as recognizing upside-down face.
  • Our brain can only process an upright face.
  • These traits of face recognition is an evolved ability.

What can illusiory pictures tell us about human perception?

  • Illusiory pictures are artificial, therefore they cannot tell us anything about perception.
  • Illusiory pictures can tell us how information is organized via perception.
  • Illusiory pictures shows that our perception is always inaccurate.
  • Different ways of information processing may lead to different understanding of an illusiory picture.

Why is it possible for us to understand a sentence with multiple spelling errors?

  • The general pattern of the word helps us recognize it.
  • Because the etyma of words are all correct.
  • The "top-down" processing helps us "auto-correct" each wrong word.
  • The "bottom-up" processing helps us "auto-correct" each wrong word.

Which of the statements on mental information procession is correct?

  • Our brain always processes information in the same way.
  • "Bottom-up" processing is simly a direct reflection of the objective world.
  • "Bottom-up" processing is affected by the surrounding environment.
  • "Top-down" processing works independently with "bottom-up" processing.

People’s knowledge and experience, as well as needs, interests, hobbies, and expectations, will affect the process and results of perception to a certain extent. This processing is called ( )

  • top-down processing
  • parallel processing
  • bottom-up processing
  • simple processing

In the picture below, the central dot on the left looks smaller than the central dot on the right. However, they are actually of the same size. This tells us that…

  • Our perception is always inaccurate.
  • Our perception is affected by personality.
  • Our perception is affected by context.
  • Our perception is always inconsistent.

(multiple choices)The painting from M. C Escher demonstrates that _________

  • sometimes figure and background can switch to each other.
  • what is considered as figure and what as background are fixed
  • form perception is important for us to tell figure from background in daily life.
  • people usually regard white part as figure and black part as background.

(multiple choices)Which options are correct about “the visual cliff”?

  • This research suggests that depth perception is an innate ability
  • It is usually used to explore whether a baby demonstrates depth perception.
  • All of 8-month old babies have developed depth perception.
  • "Visual cliff" shows that human beings have a sense of three dimentional world.

(multiple choices)Please choose the right options about depth perception.

  • We use our eyes to perceive depth.
  • When we use monocular cues, we must close one eye.
  • Sometimes we need binocular cues, and sometimes need monocular cues.
  • Depth perception help us feel the three dimensional world.

A person with sight in only one eye lacks which of the following visual cues for seeing in depth?

  • Relative size
  • Relative motion
  • Relative clarity
  • Retinal disparity

A 12-month-old infant who is exposed to the visual cliff will ( )

  • try to climb up the cliff if the mother is at the top
  • show no evidence of depth perception
  • refuse to cross over the “deep” side to its mother
  • eagerly cross over the “deep” side to its mother

Which of the following is NOT a grouping principle mentioned by the professor?

  • Common fate.
  • Similarity.
  • Continuity.
  • Proximity.

Both the M. von Senden case and the kitten experiment revealed that…

  • The ability of visual perception is partially acquired after birth
  • The ability of visual perception is partially prepared before birth
  • The ability of visual perception is entirely acquired after birth
  • The ability of visual perception is entirely prepared before birth

As the idiom goes, “those bitten by a snake will be afraid of ropes for ten years”. This is a case of

  • Perceptual adjustment
  • Perceptual set
  • Visual illusion
  • Bottom-up processing

Some headphones can produce 3-D stereo sound effect. How did they achieve that?

  • By giving the same sound to different ears
  • By fooling us with commercials
  • By giving slightly different sound to different ears
  • By combining visual and vocal cues

(multiple choices) About memory, which options are true?

  • Short-term memory has very high capacity and it holds almost all of the sensory input.
  • Individuals' memories of the same event can be quite different.
  • Long-term memory has unlimited capacity.
  • One of tasks of memory is encoding information.

When we are engaged in reading an interesting novel, sometimes we forget the time, not realizing it is getting dark until we finish the book. This is a case of

  • Inattentional blindness
  • Visual illusion
  • Change blindness
  • Attentional deficiency

In the change blindness study in which the visitor asking for direction switched for another person, why didn’t the participant (the professor) notice the change?

  • Because the two visitors looked very similar to each other
  • Because his attention is focused on the visitor
  • Because the construction workers distracted him
  • Because his attention is focused on giving direction, not the visitor

Our sensory memory is a temporary storage of sensory information. When you scan the crowd in front you, it holds ___ of the sensory input.

  • all
  • a handful
  • almost all
  • limited

(multiple choices) What can we learn from Gerorge Sperling’s experiment on sensory memory?

  • Sensory memory can hold far more information than ever reaches consciousness.
  • Sensory memory has been meaningfully encoded.
  • Sensory memory disappeares very soon.
  • People can achieve better accuracy of sensory memory when the delay is a bit longer.

When phone numbers are presented on ads, they are often in the form of XXX-XXXX-XXXX, instead of just one 11-digit number. This is a memory technique called…

  • Chunking
  • Rehearsal
  • Elaboration
  • Coding

According to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve, which of the following is the best way to remember what we learned in a lecture?

  • Review right after the lecture
  • Review right after the lecture, and repeat a few times shortly after
  • Review a few days after the lecture
  • Review at the end of the semester

How did those in the memory contest remember so much meaningless information?

  • Chunking
  • Mapping information onto a memory palace
  • Linking meaningless information to meaningful ones
  • All of the above

If an ordinary student is asked to listen to a string of vowels (e.g., a, e, i…) and then recall them one by one, how many vowels can she typically recall?

  • 3
  • 5
  • 7
  • 11

The professor introduced reciting a string of random numbers as a way to test working memory capacity. When reciting, which part of the string is most likely to be mistaken?

  • The first part
  • The middle part
  • The last part
  • All parts are equally likely to be mistaken

What is the most efficient way to remember a psychological concept?

  • By staring at it
  • By reciting its definition repeatedly
  • By reading its definition out aloud
  • By thinking of a real-life phenomenon that is related to this concept

When foreign brands enter China, they often use a catchy translation of their brand instead of their original brand in foreign languages. For example, Coca-Cola is translated as “tasty and joyful”. This is because…

  • These foreign brands respect Chinese culture
  • People are better at remembering meaningful words
  • People are better at remembering meaningless symbols
  • People are able to combine symbols with meanings

Acoustic processing achieves about __% of accuracy and recall, visual processing achieves about __%, and semantic processing achieves about __%.

  • 10, 60, 85
  • 10, 85, 60
  • 85, 10, 60
  • 60 , 10, 85

When someone say that he remembers what happened an hour ago, he is talking about…

  • Sensory memory
  • Short term memory
  • Long term memory
  • Eidetic memory

Remembering your birthday belongs to which type of memory?

  • Semantic memory
  • Episodic memory
  • Procedural memory
  • Motor memory

Which of the following is NOT motor memory?

  • Swimming
  • Riding a bike
  • Solving a math problem
  • Brushing your teeth

If a drug addict wants to keep clean and sober, what should he do?

  • Live in the previous apartment
  • Hang out with old friends
  • Keep the old lifestyle
  • Move to a new environment and start all over

We are more likely to recall happy experience when we are in a positive mood, because …

  • Mood can be an exterior environmental cue
  • Mood can be an interior environmental cue
  • Mood can distort our memory
  • Happy experience is easier to remember

If someone is asked to recall a warm experience with her mother and then asked to fill l_v_ to make a word, she is more likely to write love rather than live. This is a phenomenon called…

  • Procedural memory
  • Dispositional memory
  • Semantic memory
  • Episodic memory

According to the applications of context-dependent memory, comparing the dormitory or the classroom, which one is the best place to do the preparation for an exam?

  • Library
  • Dormitory
  • Classroom
  • all of above

When we recite a list of new words, we are most likely to forget those in the middle. This is because of …

  • Proactive interference
  • Retroactive interference
  • Both proactive and retroactive interference
  • Encoding failure

Why is it possible for researchers to induce fake memory among participants?

  • Because people often suppress unpleasant memories into subconsciousness
  • Because people want to be nice to the researcher
  • Because people often try to integrate memory pieces into a coherent story
  • Because people do not trust their own memories.

After watching a video, if a person were asked "how many dogs are there at the scene in the video", they will be more likely to recall seeing dogs, even if dog never occurred during the video.

  • 正确
  • 错误

Which medical procedure will cause a more negative memory, one with only a short period of sharp pain or one with a long period of mild pain? Why?

  • A short period of sharp pain, because we are more likely to remember peak experience
  • A short period of sharp pain, because it will not be interfered with previous or following memories
  • A long period of mild pain, because extended experience is more significant
  • A long period of mild pain, because extended experience is more likely to be coded

A clever way of advertising is to Invite viewers to solve a puzzle, and the answer to the puzzle is target of the advertisement. Because it ____

  • gives the viewers a sense of smartness and sense of positive feelings
  • engage  the viewers in terms of semantic and deeper level of processing
  • makes the viewer gain a sense of achievement
  • all of above

Which of the following evidences does NOT support the notion that we are born with a language acquisition device?

  • Even at a very young age, children are able to distinguish nouns from verbs
  • A child can easily distinguish the boundary of a word when listening to a foreign language
  • Children often have broader definition of nouns, like using “apple” to refer to all fruits
  • Children from different cultures acquire language in similar manners

According to Piaget, when a toddler sees his mother walk out of the room, he will think that

  • His mother is in the next room
  • His mother disappears from this world
  • His mother becomes invisible
  • His mother does not like him

According to Dr. David Wash, what should parents do to train children’s self-control ability?

  • Fulfill the child’s need whenever she asks for it
  • Fulfill the child’s need if she begs for it repeatedly
  • Promise a reward if the child behaves herself, but do not actually deliver the reward
  • Promise a reward if the child behaves herself, and deliver the reward if she makes it

According to Piaget, if a six-year-old reads a story in which Amy put a candy in her pocket before meeting Tom in the next room, the six-year-old will think that…

  • Tom does not know there is a candy in Amy’s pocket
  • Tom knows there is a candy in Amy’s pocket
  • Amy knows that Tom does not know there is a candy in Amy’s pocket
  • Amy does not know that Tom knows there is a candy in Amy’s pocket

What is the aim of the “Three Mountain Experiment”?

  • To see if children can correctly describe the three mountains
  • To see if children can describe the feeling of the doll
  • To check whether the child has the ability to look at things from other people’s perspective
  • None of them are right

According to the professor, which of the following is the healthiest parenting style?

  • Authoritative
  • Authoritarian
  • Neglectful
  • Permissive

Teenagers often appear to be impulsive and emotional, this is because…

  • Their amygdala is immature while their frontal lobe is fully developed
  • Their amygdala is fully developed while their frontal lobe is immature
  • Both their amygdala and their frontal lobe are fully developed
  • Both their amygdala and their frontal lobe are immature

Which of following statements is NOT true?

  • Teenagers are prone to act more emotionally than adults.
  • Compared to girls, boys are more likely to take on excessive risks.
  • Teenagers experience an increase in estrogen and testosterone levels.
  • The amygdala and the frontal lobe are both fully developed in the teenage brain.

As mentioned in the lecture, researchers from the Max Planck Institute has studied the relationship between aging and decision making. When comparing performance of older and younger adults, those researchers found that

  • Older people have an advantage in terms of processing speed and working memory.
  • Older people’s performance in decision making is as good as that of the younger people, sometimes even better.
  • Younger people have a disadvantage in the information gathering stage.
  • By utilizing the most relevant information, younger people make decisions faster and better than older people.

From the rat pups experiment, we can learn that

  • In the impoverished environment, red pups brain cells have much more connections among them.
  • In the enriched environment, red pups brain cells were sparsely connected.
  • Both nature and nurture play a very important role in shaping who we are.
  • Only nature plays a very important role in shaping who we are.

What does the Mozart effect tell us?

  • All Mozart music can help children improve their intelligence score.
  • Mozart's music has its own unique magic while other musicians do not have.
  • The effect can last more than 15 minutes after listening to the music.
  • It only works for the certain tests that focus on visual spatial reasoning

As people get into late adulthood, their fluid intelligence will decline rapidly, while their crystallized intelligence is still on increase.

  • 正确
  • 错误

The myelinization process usually stops around 5 years of age.

The child with secure attachment style will not feel any anxiety when his/her mother leaves.

(Multiple choices) We can hardly predict a person's future from genes, because()

  • one's life is affected both by genes and the environment
  • we are primarily a product of the environment
  • the contribution of genes and environment are intertwined.
  • how do individuals change throughout the lifespan is unpredictable.

Which of the following claims on the nature vs. nurture debate is correct?

  • Our mind and body are entirely determined by our genes
  • Our mind and body are entirely determined by the environment we grow up
  • Our mind and body are determined both by genes and the environment, but they work separately, with no interaction
  • Our mind and body are determined both by genes and the environment, and they constantly interact with each other.

Twin studies can help researchers separate the effect of genes and environment. To achieve this, researchers need to study…

  • Identical twins raised in the same family
  • Identical twins raised in different families
  • Dizygotic twins raised in the same family
  • Dizygotic twins raised in different families

Which of the following statements is true?

  • Fraternal twins are developed from the splitting of the same fertilized egg.
  • Maternal twins mean that two zygotes are formed inside the same belly.
  • Maternal twins share the same genes and are quite alike.
  • Fraternal twins share the same genes and the same birthday.

Which of the following claims on brain development is wrong?

  • Our brain stops changing after adolescence
  • Our frontal lobe does not reach maturity until early adulthood
  • Formation of myelin sheath indicates that the neural link is stabilized
  • The number of neural connections in our brain decreases during adolescence

If a little baby stare at something for a long period, it means…

  • She finds it familiar
  • She finds it likable
  • She finds it surprising
  • She finds it reprehensive

Which of the following neonatal reflexes are closely related to feeding?

  • Stepping
  • Rooting
  • Grasping
  • Smiling

Eleanor Gibson and her colleagues have used the visual cliff to measure an infant’ s ability to perceive:

  • Patterns
  • Depth
  • Size constancy
  • Shape constancy

According to the original researcher, which attachment style is the healthiest?

  • Secure
  • Avoidant
  • Anxious-ambivalent
  • Unclassified

Which of the following claims on attachment is correct?

  • Attachment style has extended effect on adulthood
  • Attachment pattern is universal across cultures
  • Children can only be attached to their mothers
  • Attachment style is entirely determined by parenting style

Strange situation test is developed to study()

  • a sense of security
  • children's temperament
  • rearing practices
  • the attachment styles
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  • 文本由 发表于 2020年12月29日17:48:48
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